Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mathematical Sciences

First Advisor

Michael A. Gallo

Second Advisor

Robert Fronk

Third Advisor

Kastro Hamed

Fourth Advisor

Tom Marcinkowski


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship three different instructional models had with students’ mathematics achievement. The research factors included group membership (flipped, online, and traditional), student demographics (gender, age, and race/ethnicity), and students’ affective domain (attitudes toward mathematics, mathematics self-efficacy with respect to algebra, and locus of control). The study used a quasi-experimental, modified nonrandomized pretest-posttest control group, involving intact classes of 117 students during the fall 2015 semester. The data collection instruments consisted of several different assessments: (a) a four-section questionnaire, (b) a test of prerequisite skills (TPRS), (c) three unit examinations, and (d) an end-of-semester comprehensive final examination. A hierarchical multiple regression strategy was used to analyze the data. Results showed: (a) students in the flipped group scored on average 2.57 and 1.67 units respectively, higher on the final examination, which was the measure of student achievement, than students in the online group and traditional group; (b) student age had a significant and negative effect on student achievement; (c) mathematics self-efficacy had a significant and direct relationship on student achievement; and (d) there were no significant interactions between group membership and the other research factors relative to student achievement. Stepwise regression analysis confirmed the results of the hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The results were consistent with cognitive and social constructivism, and self-efficacy theory. The findings inform the mathematics education community about the effect/influence the flipped classroom model has on student achievement in college algebra. Findings also confirm the pronounced role self-efficacy plays with respect to student achievement. Findings also confirm that gender, race/ethnicity, and students’ attitudes toward mathematics make little contribution to explaining the variance in final exam scores.