Geophysical Research Letters
Using an eight-station time of arrival (TOA) network composed of NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors and wideband electric field derivative (dE/dt) antennas covering approximately 1 km² on the ground, we have located both the sources of X-ray emissions and electric field changes produced during the leader phase of both downward negative natural and rocket-triggered lightning strokes. We show that the sources of X rays and leader step electric field changes are co-located in space within 50 m and that the located X rays are emitted 0.1 to 1.3 μs after the origin of the leader step electric field changes.
Howard, John J.; Uman, Martin A.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Hill, Dustin; Biagi, Christopher J.; Saleh, Ziad H.; Jerauld, Jason E.; and Rassoul, Hamid K., "Co-location Of Lightning Leader X-ray And Electric Field Change Sources" (2008). Aerospace, Physics, and Space Science Faculty Publications. 492.