Journal of Applied Physics
In this paper, we present axisymmetric numerical simulations of shock propagation in air over an aluminum particle for Mach numbers up to 10. The numerical method is a finite-volume based solver on a Cartesian grid that allows for multi-material interfaces and shocks. Validation of the solver is demonstrated by comparing to existing experimental data. We compute the unsteady inviscid drag coefficient as a function of time, and show that when normalized by post-shock conditions, the maximum drag coefficient decreases with Mach number. Furthermore, for supercritical Mach numbers, we show that the inviscid steady-state drag asymptotes to a non-zero value due to the presence of a bow shock formed just upstream of the particle. Using this information, we also present a simplified point-particle force model that can be used for mesoscale simulations. Finally, we investigate the dynamics of a shock propagating over a 1-D array of particles aligned in the flow direction. We show that the maximum drag coefficient increases as the shock travels deep into the array and then asymptotes to a final value, which can be as high as 50% more than that of the first particle, depending on Mach number and particle spacing.
Sridharan, P.; Jackson, Thomas L.; Zhang, J.; and Balachandar, S., "Shock Interaction With One-Dimensional Array Of Particles In Air" (2015). Aerospace, Physics, and Space Science Faculty Publications. 532.