Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mechanical and Civil Engineering

First Advisor

Troy V. Nguyen

Second Advisor

Hamidreza Najafi

Third Advisor

Albert M. Bleakley

Fourth Advisor

Junyong Ahn


There are many approaches to incorporate energy efficiency measures (EEMs) into building through retrofit projects. Single-family buildings are an essential target for energy improvements because of their energy-saving potential and considerable market share. This study evaluates energy savings and cost-effectiveness of individual retrofit options. It proposes energy efficiency measures for an existing class of single-family homes constructed between the years of 1950 and 1970. The study uses a baseline building located in Melbourne, FL, as a case study. A survey via clustering data mining was conducted on Florida Single-Family Residential (SFR) buildings (1950 – 1970) to establish patterns of construction, nature of the building envelope, and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A whole building retrofit improvement package, incorporating both passive and active measures, were proposed and evaluated using an Autodesk Revit model. The study describes a Modeled five-step methodology to identify EEMs, define the baseline model, validate the model with an actual building, estimate the cost of the EEMs, and evaluate the effectiveness of the EEMs. The Revit model supported the energy simulation analysis and investigation of the energy performance of the individual EEMs and the further evaluation of the selected combination of the EEMs as a retrofit packaged. This study also includes an evaluation of Solar PV installation option as an additional measure with detailed energy consumption with different choices of solar system size, generation levels, and retrofit cost breakdown. The research results provide building researchers and industry stakeholders with a better understanding of how to effectively carry out a building retrofit to promote energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness for single-family buildings.