Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Ocean Engineering and Marine Sciences

First Advisor

Charles R. Bostater

Second Advisor

Ronnal Reichard

Third Advisor

Jim Jones

Fourth Advisor

Howell Heck


The ability to model surface and bottom boundary layers using water column information in shallow waters is mathematically approached using a Monte-Carlo model. The hyperspectral Monte-Carlo model used in this research was previously developed and analytically validated. This mathematical model tracks photons in 3-dimensional space and includes the effects of small gravity waves on the water surface, the bottom reflectance, and constituents within the water column. This type of modeling uses a probabilistic approach and is the only method used to calculate shape factors and mean cosines in a water column and then verified using hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance measurements. Enhancement to the existing model as part of this research is the inclusion of the influence of moving fluid mud layers over a muddy bottom in shallow water. Water column constituents representing a turbid lutocline are modeled as layers of suspended particulates and colloidal aggregates measured using a vertical sonde array technique that integrates particulate fluxes over time and depth in the water column. This integrated particulate flux (g m-2 s-1) measures the time and spatial averaged concentrations in terms of mass flux estimates. A measured or calculated layer velocity component is used to extract a space and time averaged layer concentrations for input into the optical model. Other model enhancements include using synthetic water wave surfaces, developed from of a video images of wave patches. The model is used to visualize synthetic images of the transmitted underwater light field. The Monte-Carlo model allows one to assess the combined influence of water wave slope facets, a bottom fluid mud layer, and water column constituents upon bidirectional reflectance in shallow water bodies. A detailed assessment of the shape factors for World View-3 bands shows the utility of the model for algorithms of high-resolution satellite imagery in nonhomogeneous coastal and estuarine waters.


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