Date of Award


Document Type

Doctoral Research Project

Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)



First Advisor

Scott A. Gustafson

Second Advisor

Richard Elmore

Third Advisor

Kimberly N. Sloman

Fourth Advisor

Robert A. Taylor


Objective: The present study examines the effectiveness of teletherapy services for individuals with varying levels of introversion. This study also investigates the comparability of teletherapy to in-person services provided by clinicians in training. Introduction: Virtual platforms, such as teletherapy, have exponentially increased in use by clinicians and community members due to the Covid 19 pandemic. The pandemic has illuminated surprising secondary benefits of teletherapy. Research has shown that teletherapy results in greater accessibility, feasibility, and acceptability of treatment. Teletherapy platforms can reach remote and rural communities, and better address financial and time barriers. Current research indicates that teletherapy services are comparable to face-to-face services in efficacy and effectiveness in treatment outcomes. Individuals with high levels of introversion tend to struggle with emotion regulation, have greater adjustment-related distress, encounter more psychological difficulties, and have poorer treatment outcomes. However, few studies have examined the relationship between pre-treatment factors (e.g., personality traits) and teletherapy services, on determining treatment outcomes. In clinical practice, personality testing is frequently used to inform treatment planning, clarify diagnostic impressions, and provide treatment prognosis. Method: Archival data obtained over two years from a community mental health training clinic from a total of 56 patients. The data was used to retrospectively gather study-relevant details in addition to demographic information. Participants were included in the study if they produced a valid MMPI personality assessment profile, completed the OQ-45.2 instrument at initial and final timepoints, received psychotherapy treatment either via teletherapy or in-person, attended three or more sessions, and were at least 18 years old. The present study consisted of N=54 participants. Results: Findings revealed introversion is not a significant predictor of treatment outcome. Treatment outcome scores are not significantly different between teletherapy and in-person treatment services. There are no interaction effect between introversion and treatment delivery modality on treatment outcome. Exploratory analyses showed a moderate positive correlation between introversion and initial OQ-45 scores. OQ-45 scores significantly improved from baseline to final timepoints. There was no significant difference between MMPI-2 and MMPI-3 INTR scores. Initial OQ-45 scores were not significantly different between pre- to post pandemic timepoints. Conclusion: The overall results of this study suggest varying levels of introversion and treatment delivery modality do not impact treatment outcome. However, higher INTR (introversion) scores were associated with higher initial distress levels. Teletherapy is as effective as in-person psychotherapy. There was a significant improvement in distress levels (as measured by the OQ-45) from pre- to post treatment.


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