Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Behavioral Analysis

First Advisor

Sigurdur Sigurdsson

Second Advisor

Mark Harvey

Third Advisor

Samantha Fowler

Fourth Advisor

Mary Beth Kenkel


This study examined the effects of response cards on student engagement and academic performance during math instruction. Students in a middle school classroom for students with emotional and behavior disorders (EBD) received two different instructional conditions: (a) hand raising or (b) response cards. An experimental group was compared to a control group on three identical academic tests administered at various times throughout the school semester to evaluate long-term effects of response cards on academic performance. Analysis of the results indicated increases in student engagement when response cards were implemented when compared to sessions during which students used hand raising to indicate a correct answer. Performance on the academic tests indicated academic material was retained over time in both groups.


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