Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Lisa Steelman

Second Advisor

Katrina Merlini

Third Advisor

Jessica Wildones

Fourth Advisor

Heidi Hatfield Edwards


The world continues to change, forcing organizational leaders to adapt (House et al., 2014). Leaders with the ability to adapt to a cultural situation that involves people from diverse cultures, otherwise known as culturally intelligent leaders, are predicted to be the most successful in this ever-changing environment (Earley & Ang, 2003; Ang, et. al., 2007). With diversity increasing, (Olson, Green, & Hill, 2008), feedback can no longer be delivered in a “one size fits all” manner (Earley, 1986; Earley & Stubbledine, 1989). Leaders who prioritize being culturally intelligent should contribute to the creation of feedback environments that are personalized and comfortable for employees. Whether a leader and employee are from a loose versus tight culture, or whether that society is more or less accepting of noncompliance related to societal norms (Gelfand, Nishii, & Raver, 2006; Gelfand et al., 2011), is likely to impact the effect a leader’s cultural intelligence has on the feedback environment created. Results indicated that perceptions of leader cultural intelligence were significantly associated with the feedback environment created, with tightness and looseness of culture moderating this relationship. The interaction showed that leaders who were perceived as culturally intelligent, and from loose cultures, facilitated the best quality feedback environments. There was less variance in the feedback environments created by leaders in tight cultures (i.e., India) than loose cultures (i.e., America). Feedback environment was significantly related to trust in leaders, with trust significantly mediating the relationship between feedback environment and engagement, feedback seeking, and perceptions of coaching relationship.


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