Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Richard L. Griffith

Second Advisor

Patrick D. Converse

Third Advisor

Jessica L. Wildones

Fourth Advisor

Troy S. Glassman


This study examines the psychometric properties of a newly developed scale to measure individuals’ attitudes toward hostile, ambiguous, volatile, uncertain, and complex (HAVUC) environments—the HAVUC Environment Fitness Scale (HEFS). The 30-item summated scale consists of five 6-item subscales representing each element of HAVUC, utilizing a 7-point Likert scale ranging from one (1-strongly disagree) to seven (7-strongly agree). This study serves a need to better understand antecedents of individuals’ intentions and behavior (e.g., attitudes toward the environment) when operating in turbulent environments, aside from individual traits and the general notion of personenvironment (PE) fit. The study follows Spector’s (1992) recommendations for scale development and evaluation. Item generation and sorting was performed after the multiple dimensions of HAVUC were clearly defined and a theoretically grounded nomological network was developed. Following item generation and sorting, a series of two online pilot studies (n=200) were conducted. Item analyses and principal component analysis (PCA) were conducted on the data from the two pilot studies to inform item reduction and obtain a preliminary factor structure for the HEFS and the five subscales. Focal study 1 (n=429) was conducted using the 30-item HEFS to test hypotheses regarding the nomological network and to test the factor structure of the HEFS in order to provide construct validity evidence. Finally, focal study 2 (n=348) was conducted using the 30-item HEFS to test for

evidence of criterion validity, utilizing stress and performance measures as the criterion. The study found initial evidence supporting validity of the HEFS. Results and implications from the development and evaluation of the HAVUC Environment Fitness Scale are discussed, as well as limitations and recommendations for future research. A validated measure of these attitudes may provide important insights into the influence of preferences on PE interactions and subsequent stress and performance outcomes. In addition, the HEFS may prove beneficial to evaluate targeted training interventions to assist individuals in overcoming potential areas of discomfort (i.e., ‘non-fit’). Finally, the scale may eventually assist organizations in selecting individuals for jobs that operate in highly turbulent environments, and could also increase an individual’s understanding of their own tolerance for turbulence.


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