Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mathematical Sciences

First Advisor

Ugur Abdulla

Second Advisor

Daniel Kirk

Third Advisor

Munevver Subasi

Fourth Advisor

Jian Du


This dissertation presents full classification of second minimal odd periodic orbits of a continuous endomorphisms on the real line. A (2k + 1)-periodic orbit (k ≥ 3) is called second minimal for the map f , if 2k−1 is a minimal period of f in the Sharkovskii ordering. We prove that there are 4k−3 types of second minimal (2k+1)-orbits, each characterized with unique cyclic permutation and directed graph of transitions with accuracy up to inverses. The result is applied to the problem on the distribution of periodic windows within the chaotic regime of the bifurcation diagram of the one-parameter family of unimodal maps. It is revealed that by fixing the maximum number of appearances of the periodic windows there is a universal pattern of distribution. In particular, the first appearance of all the orbits is always a minimal orbit, while the second appearance is a second minimal orbit. It is observed that the second appearance of 2k +1-orbit (k ≥ 3) is a second minimal 2k +1-orbit with Type 1 digraph. The reason for the relevance of the Type 1 second minimal orbit is the fact that the topological structure of the unimodal map with single maximum is equivalent to the structure of the Type 1 piecewise monotonic endomorphism associated with the second minimal 2k+1-orbit. Yet another important report of this dissertation is the revelation of the universal pattern dynamics with respect to increased number of appearances.