Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mathematical Sciences

First Advisor

Joo Young Park

Second Advisor

Thomas Marcinkowski

Third Advisor

Kastro Hamed

Fourth Advisor

Ryan T. White


This study aimed to compare the effects of two different instructional models (flipped and traditional) on students’ mathematics achievement and critical thinking skills (CTS) at Benghazi University. This study used a quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design involving intact classes of 80 students. The primary dependent variables were mathematics achievement and critical thinking skills, and the primary independent variable was the instructional methods. The data collection instruments consisted of several different assessments:(1) A pre-and post-test (Placement test and Final test) designed by the mathematics department (2) the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was administered at the beginning and end of the semester. A one-way ANCOVA was used to analyze the data for both research questions. Results for Research Question 1 showed a significant effect of the learning approach (F (1,77) =253.5, p <.001, with adjusted R-Squared = .908) on the Final Exam after controlling for the Placement Test. For Research Question 2, results showed a significant effect of the approach F (1,77) = 11.740, p <.001, with adjusted R-Squared = .200) on Post CCTST after controlling for Pre CCTST. From an additional follow-up analysis, the correlation between the academic achievement and some of the subscales of Critical Thinking Skills (i.e., Analysis and Induction) appeared significant for both control and experimental groups. There were strong correlations between those subscales (i.e., Analysis and Induction) and Final Exam (r=.822, and .910, respectively). Finally, recommendations and implications are provided for policymakers, and other insights for future studies were highlighted.