Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Biomedical and Chemical Engineering and Sciences

First Advisor

Robert J. Usselman

Second Advisor

James Brenner

Third Advisor

Ted Conway

Fourth Advisor

Andy Knight


This work aims to assess cellular migration in three-dimensional structures as a function of Zeeman resonance. By using Zeeman resonance to initialize intersystem crossing of electrons, also known as the Radical Pair Mechanism, bioenergetics processes would be modulated. Processes such as oxygen consumption rate and extracellular acidification rate are indicative of cellular respiration and glycolysis and can be altered based on the orientation of the magnetic field applied: parallel and perpendicular, respectively. This study focused on the parallel orientation and looked to used Zeeman resonance to increase flavin adenosine dinucleotide, which results in preventing the breakdown of F-actin. Cellular viability assays verified that there were no cytotoxic effects of the biomaterials when maintained in a 1.4 MHz magnetic field. This assay gave an indication of cellular migration due to clustering in day 1 samples maintained in Radio Frequency (RF). Nuclei and cytoskeleton staining provided data regarding clustering patterns such that RF samples showed clustering and elongation after 1 day and showed higher levels of clustering and cellular linkage after 7 days. SEM provided topological information of the scaffold and verified degradation of acellular scaffolds occurred faster in RF environments. The development of fibrous networks and extracellular matrix was visualized after 7 days in cellular samples maintained in RF. This bioink composition has only previously seen fibrous network formation after 10 days without a static field when fibrinogen was included.


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